SDG Five

Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

While the world has achieved progress towards gender equality and women's empowerment under the Millennium Development Goals (including equal access to primary education between girls and boys), women and girls continue to suffer discrimination and violence in every part of the world.

Gender equality is not only a fundamental human right but a necessary foundation for a peaceful, prosperous and sustainable world.

Providing women and girls with equal access to education, health care, decent work, and representation in political and economic decision-making processes will fuel sustainable economies and benefit societies and humanity at large.

 

Learning about SDG 5

The SDG Target

5.1 End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere

5.2 Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation

5.3 Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilations

5.4 Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies, and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate

5.5 Ensure women's full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic, and public life

5.6 Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Program of Action of the ICPD and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences

5.a. Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance, and natural resources in accordance with national laws

5.b. Enhance the use of enabling technologies, in particular ICT, to promote women's empowerment

5.c. Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels

 

Rates of child marriage have declined overall but remain at unacceptable levels, especially in Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa

The practice of child marriage has been declining slowly. Globally, the proportion of women aged 20 to 24 who reported that they were married before their eighteenth birthdays dropped from 32 percent in 1990 to 26 percent around 2015. Child marriage is most common in Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, with rates of 44 percent and 37 percent, respectively. In fact, the 10 countries with the highest rates in the world are found in these two regions. Marriage rates for girls under age 15 are also highest in Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, at 16 percent and 11 percent, respectively. But social norms can and do change: the marriage of girls under age 15 declined globally from 12 percent in 1990 to 7 percent today, although disparities persist across regions and even countries. The fastest progress in reducing child marriage overall has been recorded in Northern Africa, where the share of child brides dropped by more than half over the last 25 years, from 29 percent to 13 percent.

Despite progress, more than one in three girls aged 15 to 19 in the 30 countries where the practice is concentrated have undergone female genital mutilation

FGM is a human rights violation that affects girls and women worldwide, especially in countries where it is an entrenched social norm. At least 200 million have been cut in the 30 countries where the practice is concentrated and that have representative prevalence data. Rates of FGM overall have declined by more than 25 percent over the last three decades. However, not all countries have made progress, and the pace of decline has been uneven. Today, in these 30 countries, more than one in three girls aged 15 to 19 have undergone the procedure versus one in two in the mid-1980s.

Different forms of violence, including physical, sexual, psychological and economic, as well as trafficking and other forms of sexual exploitation affect millions of women and girls worldwide. This not only constitutes a grave violation of human rights but also hinders the process of development. Available comparable data from 52 countries (including only one country from the developed regions) indicate that 21 percent of girls and women interviewed aged 15 to 49 years experienced physical and/or sexual violence at the hands of an intimate partner in the previous 12 months.

Women in developing countries spend four times as many hours on unpaid work as men

In every region, women and girls do the bulk of unpaid work, including caregiving and household tasks such as cooking and cleaning. Women report that on average they spend 19 percent of their time each day on unpaid labor versus 8 percent for men. The responsibilities of unpaid care and domestic work, combined with paid labor, mean that women and girls work longer hours than men and boys and have less time for rest, self-care, learning and other activities.

Women hold only 23 percent of parliamentary seats worldwide

The proportion of seats held by women in single or lower houses of parliament rose to 23 percent in 2016. This represents an average increase of 0.6 percentage points a year since 2006 and a rise of 6 percentage points over a decade. Slow progress in this area contrasts with more rapid developments for women in parliamentary leadership positions. In 2016, the number of women speakers of parliament increased from 43 to 49 (out of the 273 posts globally); women accounted for 18 percent of all speakers of parliament in January 2016.

 

 

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