SDG Nine

Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

Investments in infrastructure - transport, irrigation, energy and information, and communication technology - are crucial to achieving sustainable development and empowering communities in many countries. It has long been recognized that growth in productivity and incomes, and improvements in health and education outcomes require investment in infrastructure.

Inclusive and sustainable industrial development is the primary source of income generation, allows for rapid and sustained increases in living standards for all people, and provides the technological solutions to environmentally sound industrialization.

Technological progress is the foundation of efforts to achieve environmental objectives, such as increased resource and energy-efficiency. Without technology and innovation, industrialization will not happen, and without industrialization, development will not happen.


United Nations SDG9 Explained!

The SDG Targets

9.1 Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and trans-border infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all

9.2 Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and by 2030 raise significantly industry's share of employment and GDP in line with national circumstances, and double its share in LDCs

9.3 Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, particularly in developing countries, to financial services including affordable credit and their integration into value chains and markets

9.4 By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities

9.5 Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, particularly developing countries, including by 2030 encouraging innovation and increasing the number of R&D workers per one million people by x% and public and private R&D spending

9.a Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, LDCs, LLDCs and SIDS

9.b Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for inter alia industrial diversification and value addition to commodities

9.c Significantly increase access to ICT and strive to provide universal and affordable access to internet in LDCs by 2020


The untapped manufacturing potential of the least developed countries suggests significant growth opportunities

Manufacturing is one of the principal engines of economic growth. However, inequalities in the value added in the manufacturing sector point to the steep challenges faced by the most disadvantaged countries, as well as their potential for growth. For example, in 2015, manufacturing value added (MVA) per capita was less than 100 US dollars a year in the least developed countries (LDCs) compared to 4,926 US dollars in developed regions. Significant investment is needed in the LDCs to boost technological progress and economic growth, and to achieve the target of doubling industry's share in the gross domestic product of these countries. Trends in MVA show steady increases in developing regions and a slight decline in developed regions, which is similar to trends in manufacturing jobs. The potential for growth in manufacturing employment is particularly high in the LDCs, because large segments of the population continue to work in agricultural and traditional sectors.

Energy efficiency and cleaner fuels and technologies have reduced carbon dioxide emissions per unit of value added

As countries shift to less energy-intensive industries, cleaner fuels and technologies, and stronger energy efficiency policies, almost all regions have shown a reduction in the carbon intensity of their GDP. The proportion of the world's energy use covered by mandatory energy efficiency regulation has almost doubled over the last decade, from 14 per cent in 2005 to 27 per cent in 2014. More extensive deployment of clean technologies will increase the likelihood of achieving the proposed target of upgrading infrastructure and retrofitting industries to make them sustainable, with increasingly efficient use of resources and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes.


Although expenditures on research and development have grown, the poorest countries lag behind

In 2013, global investment in research and development (R&D) stood at 1.7 trillion US dollars (PPP), up from 732 billion US dollars in 2000. This represented an annual growth rate of 4.6 per cent, which suggests that 1.7 per cent of global GDP was devoted to R&D in 2013. While substantial, this global average masks wide disparities among regions: developed regions dedicated almost 2.4 per cent of their GDP to R&D in 2013, while the average for the LDCs and landlocked developing countries stood at less than 0.3 per cent. More concerted efforts are urgently needed to enhance research capabilities in these countries.


Mobile broadband networks reach almost 90 per cent of the urban population, but less than 30 per cent of the rural population

Technological advances in the communications sector, expanding networks and falling prices have driven the spread of mobile-cellular services around the world. People in previously unconnected areas have joined the global information society and, in 2015, 95 per cent of people living in the LDCs were covered by a mobile-cellular signal. However, higher-speed Internet access through third-generation (3G) mobile-broadband networks is less widespread: Only 29 per cent of the rural population are covered. Increasingly, Internet access is a requirement for producers and entrepreneurs to remain competitive and greater efforts are needed to expand this type of coverage to rural and remote parts of the world.



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