Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries

Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries

The international community has made significant strides towards lifting people out of poverty. The most vulnerable nations - the least developed countries, the landlocked developing countries and the small island developing states - continue to make inroads into poverty reduction. However, inequality still persists and large disparities remain in access to health and education services and other assets.

Additionally, while income inequality between countries may have been reduced, inequality within countries has risen. There is growing consensus that economic growth is not sufficient to reduce poverty if it is not inclusive and if it does not involve the three dimensions of sustainable development - economic, social and environmental.

To reduce inequality, policies should be universal in principle paying attention to the needs of disadvantaged and marginalized populations.


Goal 10: Reduced inequalities | Understand Global Society

The SDG Targets

10.1 By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40% of the population at a rate higher than the national average

10.2 By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status

10.3 Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including through eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and actions in this regard

10.4 Adopt policies especially fiscal, wage, and social protection policies and progressively achieve greater equality

10.5 Improve regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen implementation of such regulations

10.6 Ensure enhanced representation and voice of developing countries in decision making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions

10.7 Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies

10.a. Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with WTO agreements

10.b. Encourage ODA and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to states where the need is greatest, in particular LDCs, African countries, SIDS, and LLDCs, in accordance with their national plans and programs

10.c. By 2030, reduce to less than 3% the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5%


Many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean and Asia saw a decline in income inequality

When income growth among the poorest people in a country is faster than the national average, income inequality is reduced. In 56 out of 94 countries with data for the period 2007-2012, the per capita income of the poorest 40 per cent of households grew more rapidly than the national average. This was especially true in Latin America and the Caribbean and in Asia, where 88 per cent and 67 per cent of countries, respectively, saw gains for the poorest 40 per cent of households. That said, faster growth for the poorest does not necessarily imply greater prosperity, since nine of the 56 countries experienced negative income growth rates over this period.

Labour's contribution to GDP has decreased across most regions

The share of GDP that is attributed to labour has been trending downward over the past 15 years as processes have become more mechanized and capital assumes a growing share of GDP. Over this period, the labour share of GDP only increased in Oceania and Latin America and the Caribbean, where it was at 48 and 52 per cent, respectively in 2015. Eastern Asia saw flat growth of labour share of GDP and continues to maintain the highest share in the world at 61.4 per cent of GDP. While the labour share of GDP fell from almost 58 per cent in 2000 to just over 55 per cent in 2015 for developed regions, developing regions experienced a slight improvement to 55 per cent. Stagnating wages across all regions contributed significantly to these results.


The share of imports from LDCs and developing countries that enter developed countries duty free has been continuously on the rise

The share of exports from LDCs and developing countries that benefited from duty-free treatment increased from 2000 to 2014, reaching 84 per cent and 79 per cent, respectively, although the pace of change was faster for developing countries. The comparative advantage of LDCs in duty-free access varied depending on the product groups: almost all agricultural products from LDCs (98 per cent) were exempted from duties by developed countries versus 74 per cent of products from developing countries. The relative advantage for LDCs was even greater for textiles and clothing: rates for both product groups were around 70 per cent for LDCs; for developing countries, the rates were 41 per cent for textiles and 34 per cent for clothing.



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