SDG Twelve

Goal 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

Goal 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

Sustainable consumption and production are about promoting resource and energy efficiency, sustainable infrastructure, and providing access to basic services, green and decent jobs and a better quality of life for all. Its implementation helps to achieve overall development plans, reduce future economic, environmental and social costs, strengthen economic competitiveness and reduce poverty.

Sustainable consumption and production aim at "doing more and better with less," increasing net welfare gains from economic activities by reducing resource use, degradation and pollution along the whole lifecycle, while increasing quality of life. It involves different stakeholders, including business, consumers, policymakers, researchers, scientists, retailers, media, and development cooperation agencies, among others.

It also requires a systemic approach and cooperation among actors operating in the supply chain, from producer to final consumer. It involves engaging consumers through awareness-raising and education on sustainable consumption and lifestyles, providing consumers with adequate information through standards and labels and engaging in sustainable public procurement, among others.


SDG 12 Responsible Consumption and Production

The SDG Targets

12.1 Implement the 10-Year Framework of Programs on sustainable consumption and production (10YFP), all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries

12.2 By 2030, achieve sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources

12.3 By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer level, and reduce food losses along production and supply chains including post-harvest losses

12.4 By 2020, achieve environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle in accordance with agreed international frameworks and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment

12.5 By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling, and reuse

12.6 Encourage companies, especially large and trans-national companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle

12.7 Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable in accordance with national policies and priorities

12.8 By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature

12.a Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacities to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production

12.b Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism which creates jobs, promotes local culture and products

12.c Rationalize inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities


As developing regions industrialized, their use of raw materials grew

The material footprint is an accounting of fossil fuels and other raw materials extracted globally and used in a particular country. It reflects the amount of primary materials required to meet a country's needs and can be interpreted as an indicator of the material standard of living or level of capitalization of an economy. From 2000 to 2010, the material footprint per GDP of developed regions dropped as a result of greater efficiency in industrial processes. But at 23.6 kilograms per unit of GDP in 2010, it was still substantially higher than the figure for developing regions at 14.5 kilograms per unit of GDP. As developing countries industrialize, the material footprint of the regions as a whole grew over this 10-year period. Non-metallic minerals showed the largest increase, rising from 5.3 to 6.9 kilograms per unit of GDP. This component represents almost half the material footprint of developing regions.



Per capita consumption of natural resources declined in developed regions, while increasing in most developing regions

Another measure of the flow or use of materials in individual countries is domestic material consumption, which measures the amount of natural resources used in economic processes. Domestic material consumption per capita declined slightly in developed regions, from 17.5 metric tons per capita in 2000 to 15.3 metric tons per capita in 2010. However, it remained 72 per cent higher than the value for developing regions, which stood at 8.9 metric tons per capita in 2010. Domestic material consumption per capita increased in almost all developing regions over this period, except in sub-Saharan Africa, where it remained relatively stable, and Oceania, where it decreased from 10.7 to 7.7 metric tons per capita. The dramatic rise in the consumption per capita of raw materials in Asia, particularly Eastern Asia, during this period is primarily due to rapid industrialization.


Almost all countries are party to at least one international environmental agreement on hazardous wastes and other chemicals

International frameworks to achieve environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, chemicals and persistent organic pollutants have been established by the Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm conventions. With six exceptions, all Member States of the United Nations are party to at least one of these conventions. The number of parties to these conventions increased significantly from 2005 to 2015, particularly in Africa and Oceania. Currently, there are 183 parties to the Basel convention, 180 to the Stockholm convention and 155 to the Rotterdam convention (including the European Union as a party in all three conventions). Becoming a party to these international agreements brings certain obligations, including the establishment of a contact person to transmit relevent communication. All but one of the parties to the Basel convention and the majority of parties to the Rotterdam and Stockholm conventions have designated such contacts. However, the number of countries submitting national progress reports, which are also obligatory under the Basel and Stockholm conventions, has been declining since 2009-2010.



Join this Group Now!

Forgot Password?

AllHumanity Network
Powered by

Visibility Public Membership Anyone Can Join Default Profile Professional

Your Status Not Logged-In